Narcolepsy type 1 and hypersomnia associated with a psychiatric

Ewa Walacik‑Ufnal, Anna Justyna Piotrowska, Dorota Wołyńczyk‑Gmaj, Piotr Januszko, Bartłomiej Gmaj, Marcin Ufnal, Marek Kabat, Waldemar Szelenberger, Marcin Wojnar
hypersomnia, narcolepsy, hypersomnolence, slow wave activity, sleep homeostasis

The aim of the study was to compare electrophysiological parameters of night sleep in narcolepsy type 1 and hypersomnia associated with a psychiatric disorder. Fortyfour patients: 15 with narcolepsy type 1, 14 with hypersomnia associated with a psychiatric disorder and 15 age  and sex matched controls participated in the study. The study subjects filled in the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The severity of daytime sleepiness was quantified subjectively using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), and objectively using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). All subjects underwent polysomnography (PSG) on the two consecutive nights. The data from the second night was analysed. The slow wave activity (SWA, 1–4 Hz) was calculated for the three consecutive sleep cycles, and topographic delta power maps were plotted. In contrast to narcoleptics, psychiatric hypersomniacs had undisturbed nocturnal sleep, high sleep efficiency, normal non rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep proportions, normal REM latency and sleep latencies on MSLT and PSG. The subjective and objective sleepiness was significantly higher in narcolepsy group than in psychiatric hypersomnia group. In all the study groups SWA was the most prominent in frontal areas, while the greatest between group differences were found in the central areas. There were significant differences between the groups in SWA in the second NREM episode. The highest SWA was observed in the hypersomnia group, while the lowest in the narcolepsy group. Psychiatric hypersomniacs and controls did not differ in the SWA exponential decline over consecutive NREM episodes, whereas narcoleptics exhibited a steeper dissipation of sleep pressure from the first to the second NREM episode. In conclusion, narcolepsy type1 and hypersomnia associated with psychiatric disorder differ in the SWA dynamics. Narcoleptics presented with the altered dynamics of sleep homeostasis, whereas psychiatric hypersomniacs showed normal nocturnal sleep and normal sleep homeostasis.